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from left to right: Margo Wolowiec, Jamie Keesling, Chris Mansour

I Can't Go On, I'll Go On

Jamie Keesling
Chris Mansour
Bret Schnieder
Margo Wolowiec

In recent art publications, contemporary art as a historical category has been explained as "free-floating," existing "outside the temporal register" because of its "heterochronic" character. Such a combination of words make it seem that our historical consciousness is unable to form a coherent understanding of present conditions in order to convey it saliently. Art then becomes an activity that no longer builds up from the foundations of its prior tendencies, but one that drifts through the present aimlessly and perpetually. The "contemporary" is an anti-gravitational environment, and we are floating away from the foundations of history to the point where its ground is obscured and completely out of reach.

Is our inability to comprehend art's present context the nature of history's trajectory itself, or is this a historically specific phenomenon? What are the stakes for art today, and how does it express the way in which history serves the present? I Can't Go On, I'll Go On has brought together several artists to visualize the way today's art culture experiences "the contemporary" and the meaning it produces. Each individual work has been contextualized to speak towards such a theme, even if it was not the artist's original intention at the moment of its creation. By viewing the works through this lens, this show intends to open up a space to reflect on these questions.

door #1, Bret Schneider, 2008

pls rezonate, Bret Schneider, 2005-10

Jamie Keesling
Swimming Pool, Jamie Keesling, 2010

Bret Schneider
Must, Bret Schneider, 2010

Bret Schneider

MUST (pt.1)

Must have strong oral skommunication kcills

Must strategically brainstorm
Must have experience with development?
Must have experience with creative execution of brain
Must understand rich media & rich other stuff
Must have 10+ years of professional experience with focus
Must know the difference between things
Must have ability to work on multiple projects simultaneously in different eras
Must have ability to guide projects to completion
Must have comprehensive understanding of strengths
Must have comprehensive understanding of limitations
Must have comprehensive understanding of current + archaic technologies
Must have previous wedding photography experience?
Must have my own professional objects
Must be able to make the transition from traditional to its opposite
Must have an easy/out/difficult/in-going personality
Must be able to adapt to all sorts of situations excepting some
Must have knowledge ?
Must have english skills
Must have competent job performance
Must know color theory
Must have an adaptable personality
Must have good communication skills?
Must have excellent manual dexterity
Must have ability to proofread
Must have ability to read work orders
Must have ability to interpret orders
Must suck on paper
Must spill & re:spill
Must de-re-de-re-de-etc./etc./etc/
Must alleviate the symptoms but no more
Must thumb the rear
Must locate stench
Must grimace at the data
Must realize the absence of cents & sense
Must automate all over myself
Must splendiferate because things call for it
Must profess my in-a-lies
Must cure abscess once found
Must have ability to work in fast paced environment?
Must have interest in building
Must have understanding of branding
Must have love for said thing/process
Must have more experience
Must be able to work from my own space?
Must be able to meet deadlines
Must be able to produce killer (#) graphics
Must have 4+ years of experience
Must have prior work experience in said environment
Must have strong interpersonal skills?
Must have strong organizational skills
Must have capacity to produce high quality work
Must have a 4-year degree in related area
Must be proficient in related things
Must have publishing experience?
Must have some working knowledge
Must have ability to efficiently use (&) internet
Must be highly organized
Must be detail oriented
Must have working knowledge?
Must handle original work with care
Must have ability to handle multiple assignments
Must meet deadlines
Must work well with editor
Must work well with various staff?
Must be detail oriented
Must make cold calls
Must not fear (@) them
Must excel that them
Must perceive rejection as exhilarating in competitive sort of way?
Must take pride in trying to be as honest as possible in dealing times?
Must fast pace the environment
Must use one of these words in regular rotation: Sincere / genuine / authentic
Must get something when I want it
Must like being the best
Must know that I am good at sales?
Must not want to be a typical salesperson
Must like making people feel special
Must like art, music, theater, dance, film
Must be detail oriented
Must know said software?
Must have interest in said cultural media
Must be interested in distributing information online
Must be interested in how said information is received by certain cultural animals
Must not have speling errors
Must work independently?
Must think outside the box
Must run with given (#) orders
Must improve original orders on what to do
Must give even better ideas than previously
Must work fast?
Must work correct
Must not witch about doing the most menial tasks
Must not witch about doing the most mind-numbing tasks
Must have thick skin
Must not screw up?
Must be willing to attend functions in my area
Must professionally represent (&) them
Must have be willing to have object
Must have computer skills
Must have some experience?
Must help create a presence
Must see through personal stuff
Must be on time
Must have an eye for detail
Must have a quality of standard unsurpassed?
Must transcend on demand
Must have a very knowledge of said software
Must work quickly for reasons
Must have a fun sense
Must have an elegantly restrained sense
Must have high school diploma or equivalent?
Must have extensive knowledge of certain things now & ever
Must be proficient
Must have strong training in editing sensibility
Must have 1-2 years of experience in something
Must have strongly worded skills
Must have strong verbal communication skills
Must have a respectable truck
Must be able to pass a background check
Must be willing to work 6 days a week?
Must have a ladder
Must learn while I earn
Must have attention to detail
Must have obsessive need to create order out of (&) chaos
Must type A personality
Must have problem solving traits handed down form parents
Must have excellent communication skills again and still and ever
Must speak perfect English
Must write prefect english
Must have a very good driving record?
Must be able to pass a criminal background check daily
Must be able to past the drug checks
Must have experience in mentioned skills group
Must come out to look at the project asap
Must have knowledge generally associated with a degree?
Must have minimum 5 years experience
Must be proficient
Must have creativity
Must possess drive
Must have professional (&) appearance?
Must possess professional demeanor
Must have leadership skills
Must be willing to change my employee mindset
Must change to business owner
Must be able to work with aluminum?
Must have own tools
Must not make crumbs
Must speak very good english or other language
Must have own tools
Must have good driving (@) record from experience or not-experiece
Must have flexible schedule?
Must have good hygiene
Must be well groomed
Must have good personal relationship skills
Must be friendly
Must be reliable?
Must be bi-lingual
Must possess leadership (#) skills
Must be organized
Must have experience leading
Must have experience directed?
Must be career oriented
Must have valid drivers license
Must have social security
Must be over 25
Must have additional training in use of computers
Must have related (#) experience
Must have high school diploma
Must have higher education
Must have 3 years previous experience?
Must have good understanding
Must possess strong ability to handle multiple tasks
Must have ability to work in changing
Must be self starter
Must have attention to detail?
Must have excellent interpersonal skills
Must be able to communicate on English
Must be willing to do said thing environment
Must have appearance?
Must be 8 years or older
Must be able to lift 25 pounds
Must be able to lift 30 pounds
Must be able to lift 60 pounds
Must be able to lift 120 pounds
Must be able to lift 240 pounds
Must enjoy working in a fast-paced environment
Must be available to start this week
Must have recent experience?
Must be (@) flexible
Must speak fluent english
Must write fluent english
Must read fluent english
Must be available immediately?
Must be of neat appearance
Must be a man or a woman
Must be felxable
Must have minimum experience of 30 years
Must have strong grammar (#) skills?
Must have strong motor skills
Must be able to move mouth when told
Must have fluency in things
Must have de-velopment skills
Must be detail orientatedly?
Must manage skills
Must excellent oral written communication
Must have ability to work under tight
Must have ability to manage multiple tasks daily every (&) day
Must complete required articles early?
Must be able to plan organize plan schedules
Must be able to set priorities & completion to completion
Must be able to completion priority
Must be effective priority
Must make sure I'm effective?
Must establish social media effectatedly
Must be very comfortable with things such as
Must have superior age regardless of (@) age
Must possess ability to gather research completion
Must possess ability to analyze develop?
Must promote possession
Must adhere to set schedule at home
Must be excellently flexible to completion
Must have strong possession of ability to well organizational skills
Must possession oral (@) skills?
Must related field appropriate experience now/ever
Must work effectively w & w/out groups of people/objects
Must multitask large groups of people
Must independently
Must part the team?
Must promote flexible oral skills
Must organize oral skills under supervisional object
Must completion (#) independently
Must multitask flexibility
Must exhilarate rejection regularly?
Must be good at oriented skills
Must have an extensive eye for knowledge of things
Must be able to orient oneself
Must have skills in experience
Must have ability to direct supervision
Must have ability to have directed computer skills?
Must be detailed programs
Must take pressure of having professional pressure
Must functional skills oriented electrical
Must be proficient in reading writing electrical experience
Must said environment?
Must have 4-year degree in can-do attitude
Must compete regularly complete
Must professionally represent programs artwork
Must have ability to be high end environment
Must be awesome person?
Must be journalist / comedian / philosopher
Must copy assistance
Must enjoy research
Must be deadline driven
Must have excellent written & verbal skills
Must eat /chew / swallow / digest with my mouth closed
Must possess equipment for for digestion
Must possess outgoing personality for digestion
Must possess engaging personality for digestion
Must demonstrate 5 years of experience or less
Must have customer service-oriented something
Must have prior associations
Must have parliamentary experience
Must contribute
Must contribute to a comprehensive understanding of structure!
Must have comfort with said customary thing(s)
Must occasionally travel
Must go to lengths
Must work some weekends
Mustache have pertinent experience
Must thrive
Must live inside/internal to high situations
Must have sense of team internalisation &/or flexible
Must have sense of organizing experience
Must know how to have more experience
Must possess appearance
Must have professional education / ability
Must have ability
Must be available for interpretation
Must be available to have neat appearance tomorrow
Must have fluency in development of appearance asap
Must adhere to a set schedule of appropriate experience
Must have eating skills
Must be proficient in immediately asap immediate
Must demonstrate personality asap
Must have an appearance
Must be detailed
Must be able to set priorities adhering to team
Must be comfortable living with grammmar
Must promote electrical development
Must be able to have a great attitude
Must have recently interpreted orders
Must have ability to test for thick skin
Must be able to adapt to related field
Must improve potential production problems
Must love previous experience
Must be willing to work correctly
Must have an outgoing, easygoing personality
Must have experience photographing spelling errors
Must possess adaptable personality
Must speak english skills
Must be highly adaptable
Must be energetic in designing personality
Must manage creativity highly
Must ache
Must dress accordingly
Must not speak
Must make sense
Must report to management or nearest equivalent
Must send voice out into the abyss
Must not receive proper transmission
Must excommunicate
Must have excellent excommunication skills
Must have expression skills
Must have exceptional waiting skills
Must possess exceptional skills
Must be able to make judgement calls
Must be able to make judgments about society
Must have ability to speak to other people
Must have ability to speak to oneself for prolonged periods of time
Must be able to be holed up in a room for weeks on end without witching
Must possess ability to critique ones friends reports calls about it
Must like a retail environment/environments/digestion
Must be energetic
Must be friendly
Must change the world
Must want to change the world, for the better or worse
Must have exceptional compartmentalization skills
Must have organizational prioritization
Must bring own food
Must have dependable wheels
Must own a book
Must be able to lift books &/or food
Must have exceptional reading potential
Must spell efficiently &/or cost effectively asap
Must be able to sit in closet alone for long periods of time
Must be sorry
Must have ability to turn on nice
Must be nice
Must have ability to tell the time things it doesnt know
Must begin the process of leaving
Must have ability to celebrate?
Must own toothbrush
Must be able to sleep when
Must own respectable receptacle
Must own a working plant
Must own a chair of leg variety
Must possess possessions
Must incorporate unexpected things
Must possess interpolation
Must possess fun atmosphere
Must possess working or non-working bodily sounds
Must possess continuity
Must possess working area?
Must possess internal mechanism
Must possess appropriate object
Must possess vehicle or nearest equivalent
Must possess?
Must have behavior
Must have ability to sigh
Must have never complained
Must have ability to construct electronics with bare hands
Must have ability to role change?
Must be able to speak at all times
Must be able to have ability to shake fist &/or fists
Must be able to change drastically
Must be able to squirm on demand
Must be able to look at bright lights for long periods of time?
Must own up to failures of your own or your nearest equivalent
Must own working gratitude
Must own working light bulb
Must own working pair of feet
Must own the potential for a real voice?
Must possess hair
Must possess a clip of some sort
Must possess a strand of some thing
Must enjoy tubes
Must possess a chair?
Must have qualifications
Must have knowledge about possibility
Must have mastery of nearest subjects/objects at most or all times
Must have need to have
Must have needed desire at some point in the past?
Must be able to stop reading
Must be able to stop talking
Must be able to stop writing
Must be able to stop learning
Must be able to stop stopping?
Must be a static image
Must be a static visual
Must be a static object
Must be a static thing
Must be a static language?
Must manage large amounts of people
Must manage an endevour
Must manage one's family or nearest equivalent
Must manage management when necessary
Must manage the end?
Must not terrorize
Must not scrape
Must not scratch
Must not imprint
Must not leave a mark of any kind?
Must promote throwing
Must promote dropping
Must promote expulsion of said object
Must promote ejection of said thing
Must promote ejaculation?
Must be able to internalize all things external
Must be able to elongate
Must be able to have a big break
Must be able to go to school
Must be able to fall asleep?
Must adhere to truth & lies
Must adhere to a constantly changing thing
Must adhere to said object
Must adhere to appropriate apparatus
Must adhere to adherance?
Must be available when called
Must be available tomorrow
Must be available day after tomorrow & the day after that and so on & so on
Must be available when we don't want you to be
Must be available?
Must love the thing
Must love working or its nearest equivalent
Must love loving
Must love ladder
Must love?
Must be able to store objects in unexpected places
Must be able to put foodstuffs on forks or other similar utensils
Must be able to yawn on demand
Must be able to hear the sounds which are present in the landscape, no
Must be able?
Must improve spatial constraints
Must improve upon previous disastrous situation
Must improve upon previous excellent situation
Must improve upon all situations
Must improve?
Must be able to zip &/or unzip clothing items
Must be able to do pretty good
Must be able to finish things tomorrow
Must be able to look at things tomorrow
Must be able?
Must take said thing seriously
Must take said thing parodically
Must take said thing sarcastically
Must take said thing inappropriately
Must take said thing?
Must comply with regulations
Must comply with stipulations
Must comply with said standards
Must comply with compliance
Must comply with?
Must contribute to said situation
Must contribute to other situation
Must contribute to various situations
Must contribute to all situations
Must contribute to?
Must write about said thing
Must write about other things
Must write about various things
Must write about all things
Must write?
Must handle said thing
Must handle other things
Must handle various things
Must handle all things
Must handle?
Must help create said thing
Must help create other things
Must help create various things
Must help create all things
Must help create?
Must not screw up said thing
Must not screw up other things
Must not screw up various things
Must not screw up all things
Must not screw up?
Must be certain about certain things
Must be sorry
Must be able to have the ability to be sorry
Must be able to have the ability to tone it down a little bit?
Must be specific about said generality
Must be specific about other generalities
Must be specific about various generalities
Must be specific about all generalities
Must be specific?
Must understand said process
Must understand other processes
Must understand various processes
Must understand all processes
Must understand?
Must not do said thing
Must not do other things
Must not do various things
Must not do all things
Must not do?
Must report to said person
Must report to other people
Must report to various people
Must report to all people
Must report?
Must enjoy said thing
Must enjoy other things
Must enjoy various things
Must enjoy all things
Must enjoy?
Must give said thing
Must give other things
Must give various things
Must give all things
Must give?
Must not talk to said thing
Must not talk to other things
Must not talk to various things
Must not talk to all things
Must not talk?
Must contain said experience
Must contain different experience
Must contain various experience
Must contain all experience
Must contain?
Must learn while I do said thing
Must learn while I do other things
Must learn while I do various things
Must learn while I do all things
Must learn?
Must feed off of said thing
Must feed off of other things
Must take lessons in said thing
Must take lessons in other things
Must take lessons in various things
Must take lessons in all things
Must take lessons?
Must after said object
Must after other object
Must after various object
Must after all object
Must after?
Must placate said person
Must placate other person
Must placate various person
Must placate all persons
Must placate?
Must fall in said place
Must fall in other place
Must fall in various places
Must fall in other places
Must fall?
Must steal said thing
Must present new work
Must inspire coincidents
Must title things appropriately
Must see people there
Must sequentialize things
Must look pretty great
Must hope
Must throw things away
Must bloat
Must make sure of things
Must abandon the thing
Must prevail
Must have parts
Must end up
Must not diminish
Must minimize all content to said complications
Must ambit the thing
Must restrict for unknown reasons of aesthetic nature
Must have iterations
Must investigate for sensory reasons
Must apply rationalities for the thing
Must diverge to utilize
Must develop devices of some sort
Must reach ideological ends
Must do something anything on the boundaries of expression
Must state
Must investigate economically motivated pictures
Must have ability to make distinctions
Must live and work
Must have inner tranquility
Must use sound to to construct things
Must occupy said spaces
Must have ability to meditate on demand
Must resonate
Must precisify
Must heighten the attention of small things
Must moisten said object
Must grow and or teach
Must be able to squat on demand
Must elicit experience of any kind
Must be based somewhere
Must design shared spaces for people or animals
Must flush toilet when no other options are available
Must collect worms for reasons
Must born to a place of significant existence
Must obviate upon command
Must produce wall-mountable freedoms of a particular size
Must accord themes on demand
Must name the thing
Must inhere in different genres or mediums
Must exhibit what is effectively a thing
Must keep structural conceits of groups for purposes
Must have 2 adjacent objects sometime
Must situate around rooms
Must view by appointment or otherwise
Must receive the lesson
Must accept the help offered
Must realize that gaudy things may be archaic
Must reduce my trace in the landscape
Must finally be over
Must build using only said objects
Must specify
Must compost in a yard of some sort
Must be useful to the event
Must follow the criteria established a long time ago
Must look circumspect
Must be socially relevant
Must not make a sound in there
Must have ability to make appointments
Must simplify the paradigm
Must perform expression at some time
Must lengthen the wave
Must explore tension
Must explore possibilities inherent to differences
Must investigate natural perception
Must play a major role in shaping something
Must move fingers in said pattern at said speed
Must time base
Must be open to be viewed at said time
Must have ability to forage on command
Must look for food in urban areas
Must polemicize appropriately
Must not accept permanence
Must lessen our plans
Must eat weeds
Must have a regular column
Must return the foodstuff to the cafeteria
Must appear in a publication of considerable notoriety
Must encompass some things
Must join them for the glorious event
Must possess the currency of the future at some time
Must create friction for reasons
Must be recent in practice and theory
Must rebel against the name
Must close the loop
Must ecologize radically
Must manage a large scale thing
Must use the soil to grow things and not for other purposes which may
Must not exceed the given space
Must not venture for too long
Must socialize between the designated hours
Must obfuscate prosaic thing
Must be able to speak clearly and loudly at all times
Must have ability to do pretty good
Must be fun
Must have ability to get along with the thing
Must come down to earth to be
Must now defunct
Must adhere to the minimal criteria at any given time
Must claim exclaim and proclaim adequately
Must nationally display my objects
Must internationally display my objects at said time
Must write proper sayings
Must range, widely
Must discipline myself in a multitude of ways
Must comprise several devices
Must clear our collective body when it arises
Must complicate the thing
Must prepare for long things to come in the future
Must celebrate life and happiness
Must raise the bar no matter the consequence
Must be nerdy
Must enjoy history
Must be able to reform design rules
Must offer a criticism of some sort when asked
Must listen to a variety of things
Must be really into said thing
Must be able to write about the previous century eloquently
Must have ability to reference myself at times
Must keep the thing in mind
Must open stages
Must currently be insubstantial
Must be able to list all types of works when prompted
Must historicize
Must possess the want to thank
Must explain the reasons and such for what will follow
Must not injure
Must aim to highlight
Must have been invited to some thing in the past
Must show a keen aptitude for the skill required
Must own working biology
Must get another tie or another shirt or another something else every day
Must have too many things & be aware of that
Must increase the size of the stain
Must manipulate the shape of the stain
Must be able to clean the stain satisfactorily
Must have spontaneously arisen in my mind
Must eradicate usual restraints
Must share work
Must have a series
Must experience a place
Must repeat to effect said experience
Must critique affect
Must explore possibilities now and ever
Must produce work for the client
Must brag about personal history in a biographical protocol
Must collaborate
Must convey something humorously through objects
Must make chair
Must have interest in how we consume objects
Must use advertising techniques
Must juxtapose certain things on command
Must occupy an interstitial area now
Must have ability to prompt awareness
Must care for the citizen
Must be understated for desired effect
Must desire the effect
Must define the thing displayed
Must acknowledge certain impossibilities such as translating for example
Must explain the thing thoroughly
Must consider a word considerably
Must be transitory
Must develop a word which encapsulates everything I do
Must be original
Must understand the terms of old english
Must have a background of some sort
Must make fantastic use of said devices
Must range from commonplace to quirky
Must be able to properly salivate
Must possess functioning sense of humor
Must own at least 2 wheels
Must have ability to hold heavy things for long periods of time
Must affront on demand
Must have excellent catering skills
Must ooze into the correct position when needed to
Must contrive a position any position
Must oblate the thing
Must claim a lot of space for desired social effect
Must be unlike commercials
Must have working ability to comment
Must not abandon said thing
Must be willing to escape shadows when necessary
Must allow ample room for introducing
Must be grateful for having received organs
Must own a vase of some quality
Must be able to locate items
Must be able to bleed liberally from the proper orifices
Must have experience in excessive libation
Must have exceptional kidding practice
Must be able to break the thing in proper mannerisms
Must observe a clock of some sort
Must enjoy the process of ingestion
Must be able to end
Must know when enough is enough and when enough is more than enough and so on
Must not defraud the people
Must display things objectively or its nearest equivalent
Must work in a field of some sort
Must gratiate on command
Must mix the medias in correct manner for desired effect
Must intervene somehow
Must have ability to situate practically
Must be able to identify tensions when needed
Must be contextually relevant to everyday life
Must fashion the thing as a proposition
Must present on a platform of some kind
Must ideologically perceive
Must scrutinize an institution of some sort
Must employ a diverse vocabulary on demand
Must hemorrhage appropriately
Must hap in
Must take the course
Must not stray from the lit
Must fray the edge
Must make do without crate
Must automatically
Must flip the switch on days
Must (xx)
Must said sap
Must mix the effects to create undesired pron
Must tag the syllables
Must put down the flag on that spot
Must tense properly
Must aerate the thing for smell purposes
Must tip for light
Must compile the parks
Must shorten the statement & concisify
Must advance bases to plug
Must applicate in correct season
Must pan from right to left
Must abscess on self
Must delegate the notions in automatic order
Must explicate the innards for amusement
Must spray the symbols
Must take the spray
Must rapidly fluctuate
Must exhaust the remainder
Must prettify the stench
Must angulate my orders for maximum
Mist continue to scroll down
Must operate over and over and over
Must repeat utterances
Must speak when spoken to
Must react in applicable manner
Must cooperate with signs
Must hasten the nets
Must cast away lateral motion
Must speculate regarding anything
Must seek fodder for head
Must stick things together
Must immunize related things
Must not split the tensions
Must order the compilings
Must light the orders
Must plug the manners for the signs
Must emote the immunizations
Must hemerrhage the related things
Must correct the tensions
Must txt anti
Must rectangulate the spirit
Must alternate colors
Must include color
Must wheel the person to the corner
Must play when played with
Must reciprocate things done on me
Must stack the paper no matter the height
Must erroneate the object
Must teeth the search
Must know when exhaustion is enough
Must satisfy Must not torture the other
Must bind the information
Must recognize that history ...
Must finish flapping
Must repeat process or at least consider such
Must attack typicals
Must deflate action
Must collect granules
Must put on top of
Must extract from the internal
Must shape the mouldmaker
Must efficate on said object
Must not splat when it is not needed
Must continue to deface the face
Must wittify the object
Must enter on the said saying
Must alternate rapidly between extremes
Must take it down a notch
Must provide own functioning aesthetic
Must inform the person who wants to be informed
Must imply when it is needed
Must not go to places when there is no reason to go to such places
Must mechanize the soft part
Must put a head and foot
Must use top
Must reach out even when there is little reason to
Must attempt to placate the object
Must rotate explications for effect
Must not splay out laterally
Must teach the bowels accordingly
Must intricate the verticals
Must map the numbers
Must take ladders to their special places
Must go from lot to lot talking
Must end talking strain when called to
Must characterize personality
Must refill bottle with liquid
Must finger move for effects
Must affiliate with proper items
Must care for towel better
Must appreciate the couch
Must show love to items
Must reduce noise making capability
Must take away superfluities
Must not deconstruct
Must add necessaries
Must section the compounds and then some
Must go to place and stay
Must inform the consenter of my actions
Must impotently writhe in pis
Must infer the ph
Must mini the max
Must sex the punch
Must present different samenesses
Must repeat the figures' symbols et al
Must apply pressure to condition
Must garble the garb
Must stab the middle
Must bite knowledge
Must droop blood
Must solicit ball
Must clinch shame
Must reach the question
Must industrialize the face
Must neo-compromise
Must force conclusion
Must respond to sense
Must it self
Must stage principles
Must win power
Must speak in narrow fundamentals
Must signify interests
Must have ability to cease to be a model
Must not revolve around features
Must definitively extend
Must have ability to validate on time
Must once again mere
Must possess working features
Must have strong attn. To tactics
Must prove cause to be the case
Must react incidentally. Or
Must have ability to deal with entire range of ideas
Must speaks
Must analyze the planet
Must be familiar with detail
Must respond to an email sometime
Must like to learn more immediately
Must please visit
Must possess working competence
Must have access to the part
Must have a team or almost have one
Must absorb into a quo
Must be excellent
Must be interested in researching satisfaction
Must notice the betterment of individuals but nothing else
Must describe the job you are
Must be proficient in responding
Must understand motion
Must use experience
Must animate skills
Must architect cutting-edge collaboration
Must develop mints
Must be ready to work with intuition
Must be careful most of the time
Must have creative muscles
Must respond accordingly to requirements
Must experience users
Must have experience shopping for photos
Must inspect circles
Must have a need for seasoning
Must play a role
Must scope for internations
Must architect the rationale
Must develop strategy of ux
Must require gathering
Must frame wires
Must organize webs
Must be ideal candidate
Must have 66+ years as IA
Must See 'S'
Must send a sample always
Must alert the circle
Must be friendly to person in vicinity
Must not wear bad things
Must shower now & also then
Must put objects in places labeled with the name of those objects
Must read online & in print
Must live in a creative suite
Must flex my hours for reasons
Must mostly 4-10 but also 3-4
Must direct 1800 baskets
Must have part of a PAC
Must manage layout of associates
Must collaborate when buzzed to
Must respond to the ringing
Must preside over the VP
Must experience customers again
Must ensure that the president have input
Must output at times
Must manage directions of art
Must own the process
Must provide vision for those who don't have any
Must approve things on time
Must create uniforms
Must create procedures
Must create tools
Must mangle inside & outside the house
Must photograph the need
Must budget numbers
Must produce crunching sounds
Must retain the things I am told
Must continue
Must compete for the priority I think
Must align the strategies
Must copy inclusions
Must partner with the thing
Must call the partner
Must represent the best thing or at least give that impression
Must bring own umbrella if one catches that drift
Must vibrate my personality
Must develop a voice that cant be confused with someone elses
Must "products"
Must have pushed flowers around for 3 years
Must individuate my creativity or bowels
Must positivize my attitude for the cause
Must do things when I am told to do them for the reasons
Must have ability for etc. Etc.
Must also have other ability
Must also have the also
Must colon then list
Must bullet the tasks
Must understand basic concept of time & how to fit my body into it
Must jump over the little bar
Must bring my own hoop & then shrink it
Must multiply hoops indefinitely
Must script the things in time
Must create personal setup & then use it correctly
Must solve problems quickly even if incorrectly
Must absorb into another mass again
Must draft your own ego & then ...
Must assist with loading things into boxes
Must deliver the goods for the good of the people
Must dutifully pack the object with a functioning will
Must sit in larger thing & operate it for motion
Must have interest in candid.
Must prohibit miscategorization
Must enthuse all over the place
Must gentle trod on the person
Must bring a list of items to them for judgment
Must receive offers
Must be many parts that grow
Must make art in the state
Must support strength
Must make the environment fun
Must contribute to the best or else some other things
Must serve a region some items
Must recognize the potential of time happening more & more
Must fit inbetween the 2 numbers presented
Must put myself in a position to be found
Must have working energy
Must possess energy
Must grow vertically
Must stay stable
Must stand on top of a reputation
Must be a gentle soul
Must go out or be outgoing either.or
Must see that permanence is an option
Must provide functioning repetition
Must have been born with innate imagination
Must have natural technological processes involved on the inside
Must absorb into a mass again
Must make text hyper
Must produce separate visuals no matter the cause
Must live on or near an/the edge
Must motivate myself
Must be interested in the future
Must exist alongside others in a timely fashion
Must possess senses that are commonplace
Must help develop brief clients
Must create an overall look
Must use data to ensure working conditions
Must roughly prepare concepts
Must test the functions of the thing
Must avow the self
Must recognize symbols
Must see the true nature of a role
Must research the site
Must fill in a region with some others
Must own knowledge, finally
Must be able to sign online
Must have good
Must storm the brain for topics
Must release the press into web
Must strengthen my interests somehow
Must access fast growing people
Must put talent into a network
Must be happy on fridays for at least one hour
Must qualify for the manners
Must measure results to put somewhere
Must archive that person
Must orient around details
Must exist in a room that has ability to show
Must add up
Must have completed bear min.
Must position the larger time in time
Must aspire to fit the furnish
Must center
Must meet w/ another
Must grow & stay simultaneously
Must access my own energy by thinking
Must understand flowers
Must be aware of what is happening around me
Must be familiar w/ using action
Must be firm inside
Must be eligible so as to harmonize
Must accept that direction is going to happen
Must manage Tim appropriately
Must command knowledge for purposes & reasons
Must adapt to various everything always
Must understand concept of daily basis
Must have experience in 3 dimensions
Must have played a game in my life prior to this point
Must familiarize with concept of using things
Must expand outward
Must plan formulas for measurements
Must have a "book"
Must analyze existing things for the sake of non-existing
Must promote keys to something better than already
Must define efficient simultaneity
Must remain profitable no matter what happens
Must have oral presentation
Must have own agency but also others too
Must enervate solutions substantially
Must relate to a gole
Must be responsible for id.
Must rec. New recite
Must punctuate for best of results
Must ensure that I meet objects
Must manufacture re: tales
Must opportune all over
Must service the custom
Must operate on creatives
Must present support for structure underneaths
Must plan new
Must send a reply out there asap
Must note that there are keys missing
Must base my work on this-by-that
Must individuate here, there, other places
Must turn around quickly
Must have understanding of pages
Must join up for interest's sake
Must review that name again
Must notice what the location can be &/or already is
Must delete important windows
Must have own scroll or ability for doing
Must open my person
Must be serious if I am to be considered in the future
Must not staff my agency if I have one
Must have people inside of me, abstractly speaking, to refer me to others
Must not be different or unified or indifferent or non-unified
Must take place in lower or higher stages
Must mutate the customs
Must reproduce new nominals
Must unify over there
Must associate in a corner or something resembling
Must sound appealing
Must complicate what was already there
Must take down superfluities
Must undo some things only in order to redo others
Must develop a pattern of any sort
Must consist regularly
Must arise spontaneously out of the
Must have ability to change the shapes & sizes of some things
Must repetae
Must take a trip but then what?
Must say things that are comprehendible
Must do tasks upstairs
Must have takes it
Must send away to mass
Must independuate all over
Must transmit facilities because
Must pinch own fibers, inside or out
Must activate all, for purposes of the date
Must maintain the same things I said earlier at a point
Must order for/and
Must notice some details
Must essentialize responses
Must notice 70%
Must activate still
Must interact until ~
Must skillfully mutli ply
Must write direct responses
Must B2B
Must O. Of coordinate
Must fulfill material in ... Frantic display
Must splay understanding
Must variegate the excellence
Must print print print !!!
Must date di cans
Must provide a functioning hinge
Must encode &/or decode
Must destroy new ages
Must lengthen the term because it needs lengthening
Must cohere because of certain inevitablities
Must be wordly, for grammatical purposes
Must be comedic, so as to interact in VTR
Must accept a humor as reality
Must crack emergencies, for the room
Must continue just in case
Must get what that is about
Must be co-op-ed
Must read the idiotic notes
Must feign naive altitude
Must ache for numbers
Must find something worthwhile here or there
Must demonstrate success with a stick
Must allocate the thing
Must read inbetween the com,as
Must space
Must start meeting about dissed cushions
Must co-cider
Must camp w/ pain
Must budge it again & always
Must continue to ASAP
Must not steal the body that is not mine or close
Must anticipate consequences
Must have this, that, numbers, etc.'s, scripts, con's, tag-lines
Must alleviate lotion of the lower area
Must marquette scrutinize over the tiniest things for lengthy periods of time eliminate the enemy:
Must deliverables the anal bleed
Must quiptificate the thing
Must obfuscate skin
Must see the spines in correct order or alphabetize
Must own a pillow
Must spin the wheels for desired effect
Must abstract the causes because they are dumb
Must not strangle animals
Must de-torture the object
Must cutify the thing
Must dispense with fear or else
Must contract appendage but not in hurtful manner
Must point in all directions
Must sell mother
Must possess working child
Must grow other things for my own growth because of reasons
Must overcome overcoming
Must overwhelm while not underwhelming
Must pencil in the date because pens
Must get rid of the thing not liked
Must need help please!
Must erroneate on self & others
Must pastiche, for effects, or not
Must eradicate boundaries immediately
Must continue to eradicate boundaries
Must statement the thing
Must flip out when appropriate
Must satisfy demands on demand
Must not sad
Must talk pretty in a room
Must have visuals

Margo Wolowiec
One Day of Status Updates: 9.15.09, Margo Wolowiec, 2009

Margo Wolowiec
Detail, One Day of Status Updates: 9.15.09, Margo Wolowiec, 2009

Chris Mansour
Encore, Chris Mansour, 2009 - Video Still

(left) Present, Chris Mansour, 2010, (right)  Super Stay, Jamie Keesling, 2009  



I Can't Go On, I'll Go On:
A Response to "What is the Contemporay" in October and "What is Contemporary Art?" in e-flux
By Chris Mansour
Published in Playtpus Review, Issue 28, Oct 2010

“All the things you would do gladly, oh without enthusiasm, but gladly, all the things there seems no reason for your not doing, and that you do not do! Can it be we are not free? It might be worth looking into.” —Samuel Beckett, Molloy

IN WALTER BENJAMIN’S MAGNUM OPUS, The Arcades Project, capitalist modernity is in several instances depicted as a “hellish” existence.[2]
He describes this condition as history continuing to truck along in its course, but only doing so regressively. Hell, in short, is “transiency without progress.”[3] Here, Benjamin is not voicing a Romantic sensibility; he does not bemoan modernity for having trampled over the once “harmonious” and organic way of life supposedly experienced in premodern times. Nor did Benjamin understand modernity theologically, as an age simply of despair or damnation, even if he often used theological terms in expressing this understanding. Rather, Benjamin saw that modernity had achieved an unprecedented qualitative leap in human history—one that could actually further social freedoms for all of humanity in ways hitherto unimaginable. So if modernity offered this progressive possibility, why did he describe it as hellish regression?

Benjamin’s imagery of the modern as Hell is set in counterposition to the ultimately conservative idea that social progress comes about evolutionarily through the total proliferation of commodity production. It was assumed that world conditions would improve naturally within, and as part of, capitalism’s own dynamics, without human intervention in the form of a politics seeking to grasp those dynamics. Benjamin rightly saw this bourgeois ideology as history resorting to myth, and directed his energy towards fighting the idea that the modern world has reached, or could reach, a kind of “heaven on earth” in the context of its current material configurations. Progress, for Benjamin, was not a matter of stabilizing commodity production and relations (which consequently deflects addressing the contradictions of capital head on), but of overcoming commodity production and relations in and through their inner potentialities. This would be nothing short of a total immanent revolution, entailing capital’s simultaneous fulfillment and negation. To the extent that the revolutionary potential of overcoming capitalism is not recognized and seized upon within the energies and tensions of capitalism itself, humankind instead regresses, as social domination is reconstituted in new forms. In this way, capitalist modernity creates for itself a “Hell on earth.”[4]

We are still haunted by Benjamin’s work in that the hellish condition of “transiency without progress” in modern society has only deepened. The only—and major—difference is that most people are entirely disillusioned by the bourgeois myth of progress, especially after the horrors of the 20th century that were carried out in its name. We are instead wading through a time in which those who pride themselves on not “buying into” bourgeois ideology have also largely given up the struggle to emancipate humanity from its grip. Historical progress as a theoretical and practical problem is treated with pessimism and, at times, with downright hostility. This paralysis is rooted in the misguided assumption that modernity’s promise of creating a better world rests in ruins to the degree that it is no longer applicable to today’s problems. According to this view, modernity (and even postmodernity) is, for better or worse, a bygone era, and we have been lobbed into a different paradigm with a whole “new” set of parameters.[5] The term encapsulating such a worldview is “the contemporary,” or “contemporaneity,” and since roughly 1970, it has sealed together and fixed in place our system of cultural production like industrial glue. This glue, however, leaves behind a murky residue that obscures the very nature of its bond. The term “contemporaneity” lacks consensus to properly sustain itself even as a purely descriptive historical category. Addressing this insufficiency has become something of an itch recently, with a number of attempts to demystify what “the contemporary” encompasses. Over the last year, two major publications, October and the online journal, e-flux, have made available a series of short essays from various contributors trying to answer the questions, “What is the contemporary?” and “What is contemporary art?”[6] In the responses there are many ways “contemporaneity” has been defined, but even when taken all together, they point to a persisting inability to make sense of the present and our relationship to modernism. Despite this inability, the disposition towards “the contemporary” in the replies to both questionnaires has been either reluctantly ambivalent or exceedingly sanguine.

For instance, “the contemporary” as a historical moment is characterized as a “cacophonic mess,”[7] with component parts that are “not clearly distinguishable”[8]; contemporaneity lacks an overall “road map” to guide any sort of historical positioning.[9] Yet, what follows from such claims is the belief that these indecipherable conditions do not indicate confusion and helplessness, but in fact provide more “freedom” to move in the present.[10] The “cacophonic mess” of the present gives the authors “enormous hope,” “lacking a road map” is taken to be a “strength rather than a weakness,” it is incumbent upon us to hold a “positive vision” of contemporaneity’s “chaos and complexity,”[11] and so it goes. What is left unexplained in almost all cases is how the dynamic anarchy of the present could actually lead to more favorable social conditions, whether politically, artistically, or both. In the abstract, anarchic conditions seem to allow greater room for uninhibited spontaneity, as there are no rules or strict standards placed on artistic creativity. Yet, this dissolution of rules has not led to a new contemporary renaissance, to the sort of eruption of human artistic practice that one would expect if unfreedom were only a matter of the rigidity of the rules and standards at a given moment. However, in many cases the authors who replied to the questionnaires take a one-sided approach to the concept of disorder, seeing anarchy simply as a form of freedom in the present and failing to consider how its opposite—order and organization—is at the same time a necessary factor in the historical process of artistic development. To these art historians and theorists, it is as though “contemporaneity” radiates possibilities for a better world regardless of the fact that no one seems ready to answer what conscious role we could play in the realization of those possibilities. Despite the plurality and pluralism of the responses, the utopianism of the replies to the questionnaires consists more in the unelaborated expression of desire and in declarations of “hope” than in a plausible assessment of current circumstances.

The reason such utopianism fails to bridge the gap between contemporaneity’s discontents (the “is”) and an ideal future (the “ought”) stems from an epidemic allergy towards revisiting the modernist project to inform present practices. Ultimately, modernism is treated as a corpse whose death was both welcome and deserved. With this comes the fantasy that contemporaneity is an utter and complete “break” with modernism, based on the discontinuities between the past and present. Such an approach towards history results in a refusal to consider that the past may still weigh upon us today, even if the burden of this weight is diffuse and impalpable. Rather than a corpse, modernity should be seen as a project that failed in its own time and according to its own terms, but which therefore remains incomplete. The “break” with the past, then, is more apparent than real. Capitalism—the fundamental social condition defining modernity—persists not in spite of, but precisely through its structural transformations.

To grasp the vicissitudes of contemporaneity, it behooves us to recognize how current artistic productions can express (latently or manifestly) continuity in change, and change in continuity. This dialectic straddles the historical gap between our modernist past and our contemporaneous present, which may open up possibilities to push beyond contemporaneity’s historical impasse. To focus only on the discontinuities between moments in time, on the other hand, means that the present becomes one-dimensional, holding no possibilities to move beyond the status quo. Nor does this understanding of history honestly engage with the ways in which we have inherited past struggles. This stops us from seeing the best facets of modernism as serious efforts in need of redemption, and gives us a skewed impression in learning about the past.

Accordingly, many of the responses in October and e-flux promote the view of contemporaneity as a complete disconnect from modernism. A caricature is then created out of modernity in order to make it seem like a bygone era. Several contributions castigate the modernist project for subsuming everyone under “grand narratives” that are driven by “Eurocentric” or “NATO” ideologies.[12] What is unconsciously favored instead is an affirmation of the world as it currently exists, complete with rhetoric that sees in contemporaneity “a plurality of presents” and a “heterochronic” atmosphere. It is believed to be an alternative view in opposition to modernist discourse, which was supposedly conjured up by Western countries in order to stifle viewpoints other than its own. Even the attempts to “return” to some form of modernism fall into the trap they seek to avoid. “To understand [contemporaneity’s] various vectors,” says art historian Okwui Enwezor, “we need to provincialize modernism, that is, spatialize it as a series of local modernisms rather than one big universal modernism.”[13] Though Enwezor ostensibly calls for the continuation of the modernist project, he does so only on the problematic basis of local flavor, which presumes that taking certain provinces in isolation will create a multitude of authentic histories liberated from any kind of universal hegemony. Such a view protests the process of globalization in its current form—that is, the conditions whereby art can only make headway when packaged and displayed as articles of the culture industry—but it circumvents the issue of what questions and possibilities of artistic freedom are raised by globalization. Rather than critiqued as a form of alienated universality, globalization is simply rejected, and universality dismissed tout court.

In its best ideals modernism did not seek to force the world to mirror European or NATO cultural tropes, but to transcend the unfreedom historically specific to capitalism, understood as a totalizing force that continuously entangles the world in a web of necessity, whether the provinces of the world saw themselves as actors in this process or not. Thus the particular needs to be understood as a part of the whole. Or, more concretely, “provincial” histories need to be understood as affecting—and being affected by—the totality of world-historical events, which are intimately bound up in the dynamic of capitalism. Indeed, there are “many presents” in the present moment, but these do not develop in total remoteness, without overlap and correspondence. “Provincializing” modernism atomizes history during a time when our actions, no matter how localized they may appear superficially, have broad effects on a universal scale. Enwezor’s nominalism ultimately abstracts what he considers the real, concrete form of history: It ends up being a guise for a disinterested cultural relativism that cannot analyze how the husk of particular histories are governed by an overarching force beyond its own control—a force that is a concrete event. Such a confining vision fails to grasp its object of inquiry, much less to understand how artistic practice has developed on a universal scale as part of the particularity of each artwork.

The spell of contemporaneity not only flattens the dialectical tension between the locality of an artwork’s context and its positioning in a historical totality, but also renders unintelligible the interplay between an artwork’s fleetingness and its lasting socio-historical significance. Under the condition of contemporaneity, art ceases to be an activity that builds upon a historical trajectory: a project, in the words of Clement Greenberg, which is meant to “live up to the past.”[14] Or, as Boris Groys puts it, in what has become something like the mantra contemporaneity lives by, “The present is a moment in time when we decide to lower our expectations of the future or to abandon some of the dear traditions of the past in order to pass through the narrow gate of the here-and-now.”[15] Groys goes on to note that we live in a time of “indecision,” and claims we are in a “prolonged and even infinite delay” because we have come to mistrust the aspirations of modernism. In light of the failure of modernism’s best ambitions, this mistrust is merited, but nonetheless insufficient to move us beyond a delay that threatens to become infinite. Lowering our expectations of the future means that art ceases to be a platform for imagining a utopian future, only allowing it to make a fleeting impact on cultural history. In an atmosphere that no longer contextualizes working through the past to clear the way for a better future, artworks struggle to be anything more than discrete objects in this or that trend, regardless of the artist’s or critic’s intent.

Seeking to understand the relationship of art to history in modernity, Baudelaire said the artist “makes it his business to extract from fashion whatever element it may contain of poetry within history, to distill the eternal from the transitory.”[16] What makes modern art stand the test of time, according to Baudelaire, is its ability to recognize how art in its ephemerality has the power to interpret anew the way the present builds upon its past, as well as visualize how certain elements of the past remain with us. We can certainly question the concept of the “eternal” in Baudelaire’s formulation, but the basic idea of searching out how certain conditions remain in place within altered circumstances is apt, at least as the beginning of an approach to the contemporary situation. The risk that contemporaneity will become an “infinite delay” seems rooted at least partly in the inability to envision art as developing from the past. Art, meanwhile, can relate to the past only through superficial references stretching across an ironic distance. Falling below the threshold of Baudelaire and Greenberg following him, critical discourse on contemporaneity has become one-sided, seeing developments in the art world only as a procession of fashions that emerge and subside more or less senselessly. Everyone waits for the “next big thing,” yet, each time it comes, and to the embarrassment of everyone, its relevance deflates as the next coming attraction grabs our attention.

It seems that we have stumbled into the conditions of contemporaneity not by choice, but accidentally, in the sense that the art world has failed to make any lasting impact in a culture of distraction. We have found ourselves in the present not by overcoming the problematics of modernism, but because we have been unable to make sense of what has not yet been exhausted in the modernist project, despite its ultimate failure. Modernity is not alive, but it is also not dead. It might be most fruitful, then, to consider whether contemporaneity is just old wine in a new bottle. Rather than a break with the past, might the contemporary be better understood as a continuation of the problems and goals of modernism, but under transformed conditions?

If we actually do make history, but not in the conditions of our own choosing, “contemporaneity” is the most extreme scenario in which the will to take the helm of consciously directing history has been eclipsed, such that our practical activities, rather than directing events, are merely reactive. Objectively, it is always possible to discern alternate paths and recourses that could be taken. Here, the obstacle that blocks us is our own subjectivity: the hyper-focus on the present shuts off learning from the past in a way that can shape a future beyond the fetters of capitalism. The rubric of “the contemporary” skews historical consciousness to the point that the present itself, even in its multiplicity, is obscured, and art becomes as fleeting and inconsequential as last year’s fad. We have lost a sense of how art is a historical expression of the human condition, and we have lost an understanding of how art could segue into the imagination of a better future, without—or, indeed, in spite of—voicing a particular program or demand. If we fail to recognize that there is nothing novel about “the contemporary,” and that our historical moment is still very much conditioned by capitalism, any attempt to further freedom is likely to repeat the failures of the 20th century, but in a further degenerated and unconscious way. As Benjamin might word it, to recognize this form of regression would, like a lightening bolt, blast us out of the aimless historical continuum held under contemporaneity’s ruse. Emancipated from mistaking appearance for reality, perhaps harmonies could then emerge from within the cacophonic mess.


1. This article is indebted to Jan Verwoert’s allegorical essay, “Standing on the Gates of Hell, My Services Are Found Wanting,” in What is Contemporary Art?, eds. Julieta Aranda, Brian Kuan Wood, and Anton Vidokle (New York: Sternberg Press, 2010), 196–210. (Available online at: http://www.e-flux.com/journal/view/108) This book originally appeared as a two-part issue of the online journal e-flux. It is my intention to theorize Verwoert’s position with respect to the stakes of contemporaneity’s historical moment.

2. See Walter Benjamin, quoted in Susan Buck Morss, The Dialectics of Seeing (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991), 97:

“[Modernity as Hell] deals not with the fact that ‘always the same thing’ happens (a forteriori this is not about eternal recurrence) but the fact that on the face of that oversized head called earth precisely what is newest doesn’t change; that this ‘newest’ in all its pieces keep remaining the same. It constitutes the eternity of Hell and its sadistic craving for innovation. To determine the totality of features in which this ‘modernity’ imprints itself would mean to represent Hell.”

3. Ibid, 96.

4. This is what Benjamin referred to as “dialectics at a standstill.”

5. As Hans Ulrich Obrist puts it, we “have come to suspect modernity to be our antiquity.” Obrist, “Manifestos for the Future,” in What is Contemporary Art?, 60.

6. See Hal Foster, “A Questionnaire on ‘The Contemporary’: 32 Responses,” October 130 (Fall 2009), 3–124; and What is Contemporary Art?

7. Julieta Aranda, Brian Kuan Wood, and Anton Vidokle, “What Is Contemporary Art? An Introduction,” 8.

8. Jörg Heiser, “Torture and Remedy: The End of –isms and the Beginning Hegemony of the Impure,” in What is Contemporary Art?, 81.

9. Jaleh Mansoor, response to “A Questionnaire on ‘The Contemporary,’” 105.

10. Zdenka Badovinac, “Contemporaneity as Points of Connection,” in What is Contemporary Art?, 155.

11. Nicholas Bourriaud, quoted in James Meyer, response to “A Questionnaire on ‘The Contemporary,’” 75.

12. Cuauhtémoc Medina, “Contemp(t)orary: Eleven Thesis,” in What is Contemporary Art?, 12.

13. Okwui Enwezor’s response to “A Questionnaire on ‘The Contemporary,’” 36. Italics mine.

14. Clement Greenberg, “Modern and Postmodern,” Arts 54:6 (February 1980). Also available online at .

15. Boris Groys, “Comrades of Time,” in What is Contemporary Art?, 24. Italics mine.

16. Charles Baudelaire, “The Painter of Modern Life,” The Painter in Modern Life and Other Essays, ed. Jonathan Mayne (New York: Phaidon, 1964),